Although Jesus himself was implacable with the political enemies of the Jews, referring to them as “dogs” (Matthew 15:36; Mark 7:27), the parable of the Samaritan (Luke 10:22-37), came to contrast the love of the political enemy preached by Christianity with that of Judaism. The use of a ‘Samaritan’ in the parable is not haphazard. Although professing the same monotheistic faith and allegiance to the same Law, the Samaritans had been the national enemies of the Jews. It was highly unusual to associate with one another (see John 4:7-9). The purpose of the parable is to establish the superiority of Christianity on the basis that it teaches that one should love the enemies of one’s country and society.
José Faur, “Jewish and Western Historiographies: A Post-Modern Interpretation”, Modern Judaism 12:1 (February 1992), 32.